In 1971 Indo-Pakistani war unleashed mass immigration fromBangladesh boosting the population, thus aggravating urban population density which still carries on till today for the sole reason of the porous nature of the Indo-Bangladesh border. Slums and slum-like areas sprung up in andaround Kolkata and Howrah to accommodate these hapless refugees. This onslaught migration also occurred within the states as families from neighbouring states of Bihar, Orissa as well as from farflung areas of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, with all sorts of livelihood but living below poverty line, crowded the slums and shanties.
In the city of Howrah and Kolkata, the huge number of marginalized children, who are robbed of their childhood, are compelled to negotiate their precarious existence in the world ofcrime, misery, abuse and exploitation. They live on platforms, along railway tracks, in empty pipes, under the bridges, on pavements and in slums and bustees. Fast urbanization, high unemployment and aggravated poverty resulted in the increase of the numbers of children onthe street. More than 100,000 minors, aged 5 to 18, are street children. The main causes are:Extreme poverty that fosters domestic conflict and violence, induces children to leave school and earn a living.